Variables M SD Test statistics p Effect size
Gender b 12.770* .000 .04††
Male 3.51 .73
Female 3.89 .67
Prefer not to say 4.17 .73
Year level b .078 .972 .00††
First Year 3.85 .71
Second Year 3.81 .69
Third Year 3.81 .69
Fourth Year 3.82 .78
Internet connection stability b 8.120* .000 .12††
Not stable 4.02 .73
Somewhat stable 3.81 .69
Very stable 3.54 .68
Academic performance b 13.712* .000 .04††
Very low or Low 4.05 .66
Acceptable 3.90 .69
Good or Very good 3.64 .70
Device b .642 .633 .00††
Computer 3.80 .72
Both computer and mobile device 3.86 .71
Mobile device 3.82 .69
Family income status a 2.005* .045 .16
Low 3.90 .74
Middle 3.78 .68
Duration c .147* .000
Interval c -.030 .468
Frequency c .166* .000
Attitude toward videoconferences c -.370* .000